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Ethnicity and democratisation in the new Europe. In , Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr. During the process of European unification, Germany and France forged a strong relationship, ending the longstanding French—German enmity , which had peaked during and after World War I. President Roosevelt sought out Americans of German ancestry for top war jobs, including General Dwight D.
Translations in context of "Germanophobie" in German-English from Reverso Context: Für uns ist es nun an der Zeit zu verstehen, dass dies auch für die Germanophobie gilt.
20/9/2013 · Georges Valance vous présente son ouvrage "Petite histoire de la germanophobie" aux éditions Flammarion.http://www.mollat.com/livres/valance-georges-petite-h...Author: librairie mollat
germanophobie - German
Germanophobie has 2 translations in 2 languages. Jump to Translations. translations of Germanophobie. DE EN English 1 translation. Germanophobia; Show more... DE BG Bulgarian 1 translation.
Germanophobia (uncountable) The hatred or fear of Germany and anything German. quotations. , Panikos Panayi, Germans in Britain Since , If we deal with state Germanophobia, the first observation concerns the uniqueness of war in the sense that it means that the government became overtly rather than covertly xenophobic in.
She never massacred any people. It is hard to criticize the Germanophobia of the French left parties. The explanations of rising anti-German sentiment. The fear of the hereditary enemy is still in the minds of the people. Germany has indeed regained its whole power and the balance has changed. The demographic and industrial powers of the country are crushing France. And because of that supremacy, a frustrated France is losing influence over the European scene.
After that historical argument, a second factor, with a major role, seems to be at the heart of Germanophobia. It is the brutal crisis management of Angela Merkel. That management is seen as self-centered and harsh on the countries with a heavy debt burden. This feeling of superiority shown sometimes by the German political body is irritating Europeans, who do not fail to laugh in front of the few German setbacks.
We are actually in a war of everybody against everybody. So of course the Chancellor can impose her point of view because Berlin only has the financial means to help States on the verge of bankruptcy.
But her arrogance coupled with her father-like way of speaking irritates as much as her way of always telling people what to do. The intellectual Jean-Louis Boulanges, former MEP, explains that Merkel reminds us that men are born to suffer. If the Greeks have to pay high financial interest on their debt and deprive themselves, it is because they have sinned. Germany must be careful because the excess of moralism in international relations is always dangerous.
This time, it nearly brought down the euro and Europe. Some Germans share that point of view. Emmanuel Todd, historian, demographer and political specialist, regularly invited to TV shows, has wondered about the true intentions of Germany. He condemns a hierarchical system with the Southern scorned outcasts, the brilliant second France and Germany as the leading central power outstanding the other countries. He says that we have not understood that Germany is leading a national strategy of taking of control of Europe and isolating France.
He uses Mali as an example, saying that while France is trying to do something in its own natural influential area — the Mediterranean and Africa - Germany is trying to throw a spanner in the works. In Mali, inducing negative attitudes, surely by preventing other countries to come and help. It is a typical case of isolation attempt of France from Germany.
Because there is a German attempt to isolate France from its European space. It is either a completely irrational logic, a type of masochism, a self-discipline and self-punishment thinking, or it is aiming at suppressing European competitors. Because if Germany wanted to dominate Europe that is what it would do. Once again, one can see the isolation process of France from Germany. The future of Franco-German relations. English Wikipedia has an article on: Anti-German sentiment.
In Britain during the First World War, the government established various agencies for the propagation of Germanophobia. Categories : English words prefixed with Germano- English words suffixed with -phobia English lemmas English nouns English uncountable nouns English terms with quotations en:Phobias.
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The rising Germanophobia in Europe - Le Journal International
Georges Valence brings a few answers in his book “Petite histoire de la germanophobie” (Little story of Germanophobia). The fear of the hereditary enemy is still in the minds of the people. Konrad Adenauer had already warned us at the end of his life, saying: “As soon as Berlin is a …
Germanophobie has 2 translations in 2 Jump to Translations. translations of Germanophobie. DE EN English 1 translation. Germanophobia; Show more DE BG Bulgarian 1 translation. Translations in context of "Germanophobie" in German-English from Reverso Context: Für uns ist es nun an der Zeit zu verstehen, dass dies auch für die Germanophobie gilt. Discover more about germanophobie.
Various displays of Germanophobia in Europe
Anti-German sentiment also known as Anti-GermanismGermanophobia or Teutophobia is opposition to or fear of Germanyits inhabitantsits cultureor its language.
Anti-German sentiment largely began with the midth-century unification of Germanywhich made the new nation a rival to the great powers of Europe on economic, cultural, geopolitical, and military grounds. However, the German atrocities during World War I and World War II greatly strengthened anti-German sentiment.
In the s Russia experienced an outbreak of Germanophobia, mainly restricted to a small group of writers in St. Petersburg who had united around a right-wing newspaper. It began in with the publication of an article by a writer using the pseudonym "Shedoferotti" who proposed that Poland be given autonomy and that the privileges of the German barons in the Baltic governorates Germanophobie Finland be preserved.
Mikhail Katkov published a harsh criticism of the article in the Moscow Newswhich in turn caused a flood of angry articles in which Russian writers expressed their irritation with Europeans, some of which featured direct attacks on Germans. The following year,the th anniversary of the death of Mikhail Lomonosov was marked throughout the Russian empire. The authors then criticized contemporary German scholars Modernization their neglect of the Russian language and for printing articles in foreign languages while receiving funds from the Russian people.
It was further suggested by some writers that Russian citizens of German origin who did not speak Russian and follow the Orthodox faith should be considered foreigners. It was also proposed that people of German descent be forbidden from holding diplomatic posts as they might not have "solidarity with respect to Russia".
Despite the press campaign against Germans, Germanophobic feelings did not develop in Russia to any widespread extent, and died out, due to the Imperial family's German roots and the presence of many German names in Die Lehrerin Film Online Russian political elite. Negative comments about Germany had begun to appear in Britain in the s, following the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War in — The Battle of Dorkingmany of Sina Berger Nackt focused on the idea that Britain might be Germany's next victim.
Lord Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffewho used his Newspapers like "Daily Mail" or "The Times" to rush against Germany, was particularly prominent in this role and influenced the classes and the masses like no one else against Germany. In the late 19th century, the label Made in Germany was introduced. In the s, German immigrants in Britain were the target of "some hostility".
Interviewees for the Royal Commission on Alien Immigration believed that Germans were involved in prostitution and burglary, and many people also viewed Germans working in Britain as threatening the livelihood of Britons by being willing to work for longer hours. Anti-German hostility deepened since early after the Kruger telegram of Kaiser Wilhelm IIin which he congratulated President Kruger of the Transvaal on repelling the British Jameson Raid.
Attacks on Germans in London were reported in the German press at the time but do not appear to have actually occurred. The Saturday review suggested "be ready to fight Germany, as Germania delenda est " "Germany is to be destroyed"a reference to the coda against the Carthaginians used by Cato the Elder during the Roman Republic. The Kaiser's reputation was further degraded by his angry tirade and the Daily Telegraph Affair. In the 19th century, the mass influx of German immigrants made them the largest group of Americans by ancestry today.
This migration resulted in nativist reactionary movements not unlike those of the contemporary Western world. One of many incidents described in a 19th century account included the blocking of a funeral procession in New York by a group who proceeded to hurl insults at the pallbearers.
Following the signing of the Entente Cordiale in between Britain and France, official relationships cooled as did popular attitudes towards Germany and German residents in Britain. A fear of German militarism replaced a previous admiration for German culture and literature. At the same time, journalists produced a stream of articles on the threat posed by Germany. In Alfred Harmsworth commissioned author William Le Queux to write the serial novel The Great War in England inwhich featured France and Russia combining forces to crush Britain, who was, with German intervention, able to rally a force to turn the tide.
Twelve years later Harmsworth asked him to Germanophobie sentiment, promising the full support of his formidable advertising capabilities. The result was the bestselling The Invasion Lhw Sachsen Anhaltwhich originally appeared in serial form in the Daily Mail in and has been referred to by historians as inducing an atmosphere of paranoia, mass hysteria and Germanophobia that would climax in the Naval Scare of — At the same time, conspiracy theories were concocted combining Germanophobia with antisemitism, concerning the supposed foreign control of Britain, some of which blamed Britain's entry into the Second Boer War on international financiers "chiefly German in origin and Jewish in race".
In when the German army invaded neutral Belgium and northern France many thousands of Belgian and French civilians were accused of being francs-tireurs and executed. In Great Britain, anti-German feeling led to infrequent rioting, assaults on suspected Germans and the looting of stores owned by people with German-sounding names, occasionally even taking on an antisemitic tone.
King George V was persuaded to change his German name of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to Windsor and relinquish all German titles and styles on behalf of his relatives who were British subjects. The German Shepherd breed of dog was renamed to the euphemistic "Alsatian"; the English Kennel Club only re-authorised the use of 'German Shepherd' as an official name in Several streets in London which were named after places in Germany or notable Germans had their names changed.
For instance, Berlin Road in Catford was renamed Canadian Avenueand Bismarck Road in Islington was renamed Waterlow Road. Attitudes to Germany were not entirely negative among British troops fighting on the Western Front; the British writer Nicholas Shakespeare quotes this statement from a letter written by his grandfather during the First World War in which he says he would rather fight the French and describes German bravery:.
Personally, my opinion is that our fellows get on much best [sic] with the Germans, and would very much rather be fighting the French! It was a fine sight to see the Germans coming on in solid formation, in front of our machine guns Robert Graves who, like the King, also had German relatives, wrote shortly after the war during his time at Oxford University as an undergraduate that:. The eighteenth century owed its unpopularity largely to its Frenchness. Except against the French.
If ever there is a war against them, I'll go like a shot. Some undergraduates even insisted that we had been fighting on the wrong side: our natural enemies were the French. In Canada, there was some anti-German sentiment in Germanic communities, including Berlin, Ontario Kitchener, Ontario in Waterloo County, Ontariobefore and the First World War and some cultural sanctions.
It was this anti-German sentiment that precipitated the Berlin to Kitchener name change in The city was named after Lord Kitchenerfamously pictured on the " Lord Kitchener Wants You " recruiting posters. Several streets Mia Farrow Nackt Toronto that had previously been named for Liszt, Humboldt, Schiller, Bismarck, etc.
The Governor General of Canada, the Duke of Connaughtwhile visiting Berlin, Ontario, in Mayhad discussed the importance of Canadians of German ethnicity regardless of their origin in a speech: "It is of great interest to me that many of the citizens of Berlin are of German descent.
I well know the admirable qualities — the thoroughness, the tenacity, and the loyalty of the great Teutonic Race, to which I am so closely related. I am sure that these inherited qualities will go far in the making of good Canadians and loyal citizens of the British Empire".
Some immigrants from Germany who considered themselves Canadians but were not yet citizens, were detained in internment camps during the War. News reports during the war years indicate that "A Lutheran minister was pulled out of his house German clubs were ransacked through the course of the war.
It was just a really nasty time period. History professor Mark Humphries summarized the situation:. So there were these latent fears about foreigners It becomes very easy to stoke these racist, nativist fires and convince people there really is a threat. War propaganda is top-down driven, but it's effective because it re-enforces tendencies that already exist. A document in the Archives of Germanophobie makes the following comment: "Although ludicrous to modern eyes, the whole issue of a name for Berlin highlights the effects that fear, hatred and nationalism can have upon a society in the face of war.
Internment camps across Canada opened in and 8, "enemy aliens" were held there until the end of the war; many were German speaking immigrants from Austria, Hungary, Germany, and Ukraine. Only 3, were classed as prisoners of war; the rest were civilians. Built inthe Waterloo Pioneer Memorial Tower in rural Kitchener, Ontario, commemorates the settlement by the Pennsylvania Dutch actually Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch or German  of the Grand River area in the s in what later became Waterloo County, Ontario.
In Australia, an official proclamation of 10 August required all German citizens to register their domiciles at the nearest police station and to notify authorities of any change of address.
Under the later Aliens Restriction Order of 27 Mayenemy aliens who had not been interned had to report to Germanophobie police once a week and could only change address with official permission. An amendment to the Restriction Order Hacken Lernen Tanzen July prohibited enemy aliens and naturalized subjects from changing their name or the name of any business they ran.
Under the War Precautions Act of which survived the First World Warpublication of German language material was prohibited and schools attached to Lutheran churches were forced to abandon German as the language of teaching or were closed by the authorities. German clubs and associations were Germanophobie closed. The original German names of settlements and streets were officially changed.
In South AustraliaGrunthal became Verdun and Krichauff became Beatty. In New South Wales Germantown became Holbrook after the submarine commander Norman Douglas Holbrook. This is despite many Germans and offspring such as Gen.
John Monash serving Australia capably and honorably. A booklet circulated widely in claimed that "there were over 3, German spies scattered throughout the states".
Anti-German propaganda was also inspired by several local and foreign companies who were keen to take the opportunity to eliminate Germany as a competitor in the Australian market. Germans in Australia were increasingly portrayed as evil by the very nature of their origins. After the revelation of the Zimmermann Telegram partly sparked the American declaration of war against Imperial Germany in AprilGerman Americans were sometimes accused of being too sympathetic Emma Stone Leather Germany.
Former president Theodore Roosevelt denounced " hyphenated Americanism ", insisting that dual loyalties were impossible in wartime. A small minority of Americans, usually of German-American descent, came out for Germany. Similarly, Harvard psychology professor Hugo Münsterberg dropped his efforts to mediate between America and Germany, and threw his efforts behind the German cause. The allegations included spying for Germanophobie, or endorsing the German war effort.
One person was killed by a mob; in Collinsville, IllinoisGerman-born Robert Prager was dragged from jail as a suspected spy and lynched. When the United States entered the war insome German Americans were looked upon with suspicion and attacked regarding their loyalty. Some aliens were convicted and imprisoned on charges of sedition, for refusing to swear allegiance to the United States war effort. In ChicagoFrederick Stock was forced to step down as conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra until he finalized his naturalization papers.
Orchestras replaced music by German composer Wagner with French composer Berlioz. In Nashville, TennesseeLuke Leathe publisher of The Tennesseantogether with "political associates", "conspired unsuccessfully to have the German-born Major Stahlman declared an "alien enemy" after World War I began.
The town, Berlin, Michigan, was renamed Marne, Michigan in honor of those who fought in the Battle of the Marne. The town of Berlin, Shelby County Ohio changed Germanophobie name to its original name of Fort Loramie, Ohio.
The city of Germantown in Shelby County Tennessee Hobbyhuren Stralsund changed its name to Neshoba during the war. German street names in many cities were changed. German and Berlin streets in Cincinnati became English and Woodward.
Many businesses changed Manau Celtique D Aujourd Hui names. In Chicago, German Hospital became Grant Hospital; likewise the German Dispensary and the German Hospital in New York City were renamed Lenox Hill Hospital and Wyckoff Heights Hospital respectively.
Many schools stopped teaching German-language classes. Nebraska banned instruction in any language except English, but the U. Supreme Court ruled that the ban was illegal in Meyer v.